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Open educational resources

Contents of the Guide

The purpose of this LibGuide is to shed light on open education from the perspective of open educational resources.

You will find answers to the following questions:

What are open educational resources? Where can I find open educational resources? How can I use open educational resources? What should be taken into account when publishing open educational resources? What are CC licenses and how are they used in connection with open educational resources?

Further questions about open educational resources and the Guide can be addressed to library@hanken.fi.

Open education

What is open education?

Opening up education or Open education means extending access to and participation in education to larger audiences and target groups by lowering barriers to education and increasing accessibility, unrestrictedness, offering and learner-centeredness. It diversifies the possibilities of teaching, learning and building, joint development and sharing of knowledge, and combines the pathways of formal and non-formal learning.

Although open education is often carried out with the help of digital technologies, the concept is not the same as digital education or digitalisation of educational resources.

Important concepts in open education include open educational resources and open educational practices.

 

Sources:

What are open educational resources?

Open educational resources (OERs) mean materials or information in any form and used on any medium that are designed for teaching and learning purposes.

Open educational resources are materials or information which have been:

  • released for public use (public domain) , or
  • shared by an open license, usually Creative Commons creative commons.that permits no-cost access, re-use, re-purpose, adaptation and redistribution by others than the author, with or without restrictions.


Source: Open Science Coordination in Finland, the Federation of Finnish Learned Societies (TSV) (2020). Open education and educational resources. National policy and executive plan by the higher education and research community for 2021-2025. Policy component 1 – Open access to educational resourcesCC BY 4.0.

Video: EU Science Hub – Joint Research Centre (2018). Open Licenses in Open Education: why do they matter? Dr Cable Green (Part I).

Avointen oppimateriaalien hyödyt.

Picture: CC BY-SA 4.0, by Aino Helariutta.

See:

What are open educational practices?

Open educational practices mean practices by which education, learning and teaching are made transparent and shared and which enable their further processing.

Such practices include:

  • peer learning and the development of education between students, researchers, teaching staff and the rest of the society;
  • involving students in the planning of their learning pathways, including the identification and recognition of competences acquired outside their own educational establishment;
  • opening up the education offering to the general public (e.g., MOOC courses);
  • sharing and reuse of information relating to the planning and organising of teaching (e.g., curricula, evaluation methods, guidelines, experiences from the implementation of teaching and from learning);
  • use, further development and joint development of open educational resources (e.g., videos, podcasts, written material).

 

Adapted from the source: Practical Guidelines on Open Education for Academics: modernising higher education via open educational practices.
Source: Open Science Coordination in Finland, the Federation of Finnish Learned Societies (TSV) (2020). Open education and educational resources. National policy and executive plan by the higher education and research community for 2021-2025. Policy component 1 – Open access to educational resourcesCC BY 4.0.

Finnish national policy on open access to educational resources:

 

Finnish national policies and recommendations for open science:

 

International guidelines and recommendations for open education:

 

OER World Map –  World map for open educational resources:

  • OER World Map: The OER World Map is the place on the web for the open education community by mapping relevant organisations, projects, people, and services, allowing them to link up with each other. Anyone involved in Open Education can share information, experiences and ideas related to their work, contribute to the information on the World Map, and access the information on the World Map.
     It is recommended to create an account and add your own OER projects.

The 5Rs of openness

The 5Rs of Openness

Open educational resources are characterized by everyone's rights to access, re-use, adapt, and distribute the educational resources. In order to be  open, an educational resource ought to be openly licensed or released freely available for public use.

The 5Rs of openness, an idea launched by David Wiley, illustrates well the openness of educational resources. In order to be open, the user should have the following access rights to the educational resources:

Retain: The right to make, own, and control a copy of the resource (e.g., download and keep your own copy).

Reuse: The right to use the original, revised or remixed copy of the material publicly (e.g., on a website, in a presentation, in a class). 

Revise: The right to edit, adapt, and modify your copy of the resource (e.g., translate it into another language).

Remix: The right to combine your original or revised copy of the resource with other existing materials to create something new (e.g., create a mash-up).

Redistribute: The right to share copies of your original, revised or remixed copy of the resource with others (e.g., post a copy online or give one copy to a friend).

Source: David Wiley (2009). Defining "open".

Video: David Wiley (2010). TEDxNYED.

A visual explanation of the basics of open educational resources (OERs), based on David Wiley's 5Rs. The video contains both an overview of different types of OERs and how OERs are connected to the Creative Commons licenses, and an introduction to the most important steps to find and use OERs.

Video: SMU Libraries (2019), Understanding OER.

Recommended CC licenses for open use

License your educational resources for open use.

It is recommended to use the following two Creative Commons (CC) licenses:


 CC BY 4.0.  CC BY 4.0 Attribution

With this license, you as the author authorises others to copy, use, modify, distribute, and build upon your work, display and perform their work and the modified version thereof, even in commercial contexts, provided that the author and the license of the work are referred to in a linkage and any changes are clearly stated. The modified versions must not infringe on the specific nature of the original author’s work. CC BY is the most common license for open content.

 

CC BY-SA 4.0. CC BY-SA 4.0 Attribution – ShareAlike:

With this license, you as the author authorises others to copy, use, modify, distribute, and build upon your work, display and perform their work and the modified version thereof, even in commercial contexts, provided that the author and the license of the work are referred to in a linkage and any changes are clearly stated. The modified versions must not infringe on the specific nature of the original author’s work. If the editor publishes the modified version, it must be published under the same license. 

All new works created on the basis of a work that has this license must have the same license as the original work. This is recommended for educational resources.

See: