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Copyright guide: For researchers

Private use

The normal provisions of the Copyright Act are applied to research regardless of whether it comes to research materials or research results and publications.

If a researcher copies works for personal use, it is considered as private use.  If works are copied for a research or student group, it is not regarded as private use but requires permission. Use in a work community is not private use.

More information, see:

- Private use by Pirjo Kontkanen, laywer, University of Helsinki.

- Private Use by Anna Keune, Aalto University.

Photocopying and printing

Kopiosto licence applies to using copies in the teaching, research and administrative activities of the licencee in Finland, and permits the partial copying of works and the printing of digital materials. With the Kopiosto copying licence, students, researchers and staff of educational institutions can also scan printed publications, copy texts and images from open websites unless the copyright owner has prohibited such copying and usage, and distribute materials in digital format in the school’s closed network.

Digital copying

For research purposes, the digital copying and use of materials in research is permitted. Copies made for research purposes may not be used for any other purpose. Publications may be digitally copied for the research group if it is essential for furthering the research. Copies may be made and stored so that they are only available to the research group during the research period. Digital copies made for research purposes may be distributed via email or a secure network, so that they are only available to the research group in question. More information, see  Kopiosto copying licence’s licence terms.

More information, see Copyright and research by Pirjo Kontkanen, laywer, University of Helsinki.

Author reuse permission

Researchers often reuse their published journal articles or book chapters in a book later. For example, doctoral students often have content reuse in their doctoral thesis. In this case, you need to clear the copyright issue about whether and what version of your article can be reused and republished in your book or doctoral dissertation. Usually the publishers decide upon the permission to reuse or republish your articles. Many publishers allow reusing your contribution without requiring permission from them, but the allowed version of the content may be different with different publishers.

For example, with Emerald, it is regulated in Permission that "when an author publishes in an Emerald publication, they retain the right to use their work for scholarly and teaching purposes. For more information, please consult our Author reuse rights page, or contact permissions@emeraldinsight.com."

"Emerald author rights" page specifies what version of your article you as an Emerald author can include in your dissertation: In the print version of your dissertation, you can use the final PDF version (Version of Record), but for the electronic deposit of your dissertation, you can only use a pre- or post-print (preferably).

With other major publishers, please visit:

- Guidelines for SAGE Authors: Authors Re-Using Their Own Work.

- Elsevier author and user rights.

- Springer Obtaining permissions.

Also note that the original articles should always be cited appropriately with full references in your book or dissertation. Furthermore, if it is a joint publication, you need to confirm your co-authors' permission for the content reuse and republishing.

Open publishing

When the article is written, the copyright belongs to the author, not the university or institution s/he works for, if no other agreement has been made. If the work has several authors, the copyright belongs to all of them.

Open access (OA) means free online access to research articles. Parallel publishing, a form of open access publishing, means that researchers publish their work also in an open digital repository of the own university (Dhanken). Articles published in printed scientific journals can usually be published in open digital repositories as well. Copyright issues have to be considered in open publishing, especially in parallel publishing.

The author can sign away his/her copyrights. This is, however, not advisable at the time of publishing your article. The publisher can offer the author an agreement which transfers all the rights to the publisher. Researches are advised to avoid signing this kind of agreement or contract, and to retain the right to publish parallel versions of their articles in the university repository.

If you are an author of a joint publication, you need to confirm the other authors’ permission for parallel publishing the article in the university repository. It is advisable that the authors agree on parallel publishing already at the writing stage.

An article can include materials, for example, images and graphics, which are under copyright of a third party. Ensure the permission of their usage both in the original publishing platform and in the university repository.

In most cases information about a publisher’s copyright and parallel publishing policy can be checked at the SHERPA/RoMEO database. In addition, this policy can often be found on the publisher’s website. Permission for parallel publishing can also be asked directly from the publisher.

The original source of publication and the link to publisher’s version must be mentioned in connection with parallel publishing.

More information, see:

- Open Access Publishing and Open Access (Hanken).

- Copyright: Open publishing (Lappeenranta University of Technology).

- Open Access and Open Data by Anna Keune and Maria Rehbinder (Aalto University).

Creative Commons (CC) licences

Creative Commons (CC) licences are suitable for use in publishing all open contents and materials, excluding computer software which has its own licences.

Publishing with Creative Commons licences does not mean giving up copyrights. It means offering part of the rights to the user under certain terms and conditions, which the author defines him- or herself.

More information, see Choosing a CC licence and Frequently asked questions at Creative Commons.

Licence recommendations

Open Science and Research Initiative of the Ministry of Education and Culture (MINEDU) recommends these licences:

  1. Publications and research data: CC Attribution 4.0.

  2. Metadata: CC0.

  3. Computer software: MIT Licence.

Publications in social media

Scientific publications can also be shared in social media such as ResearchGate, Academia.edu and Mendeley.

Sharing the original publications via social media is protected by the copyright. Researchers have to take care of the copyright issues when sharing the publications through these forums.

In most cases the copyright policy of the publisher or the journal can be checked in SHERPA/RoMEO or on the publisher’s website.

Links

- Finnish Copyright Act.

- Open science and research.

- Copyright in teaching by Pirjo Kontkanen, laywer, University of Helsinki.

- Art University Copyright Advice by Aalto University.

- Copyright: Use of materials by Lappeenranta University of Technology LUT.