A teacher has the copyright to the works s/he makes and has the right to decide how the works may be used. Generally the university as the employer has no rights to the employees’ or teachers’ copyright protected works. Transfer of rights has to be agreed upon separately. More information, see Copyright and Employment and Teacher as the producer of copyright protected material by Pirjo Kontkanen, laywer, University of Helsinki.
A student has the copyright to his/her work. Using a student’s work requires permission from the student. But it does not mean that the permission should be asked from every student when a teacher uses students’ work, for example, reading out their essays.
It is allowed to make a few copies of published works for private use, but teaching is not considered as private use. When using published works in teaching materials, teachers need to follow the terms and conditions of the materials as well as proper referencing practices for all the materials they use. For example, teachers are allowed to include literary works and compositions in a compilation used in public education, but there are terms and conditions and regulations when doing so. More information, see Compilations for Public Education by Anna Keune and Sanna Vilmusenaho, Aalto University.
Please also read the following:
Teachers are also allowed to make copies of published works for teaching purpose by photocopying or other similar methods with contractual licences. A valid Kopiosto licence allows the partial copying of works and the printing of digital materials. You may copy and scan printed publications and copy images and texts freely available on the Internet to the extent required by the purpose of use whenever the copying is essential to furthering the research. If you want to use or copy material more extensively or in a different manner than enabled by Kopiosto copying licence, you can request a permission directly from the author or publisher.
With texts and images, you are allowed to make photocopying of 20 pages per publication, but a maximun of half of the publication.
Photocopying workbooks, exercise or answer books is prohibited. In distance learning, teachers may copy model answers included in the solution book to be sent to the student, on condition that the teacher is in possession of the book in question.
When photocopies of protected works are used, the name of the author or photographer should be acknowledged in accordance with good custom.
More information, see:
- Photocopying by Pirjo Kontkanen.
- Photocopying by Anna Keune and Sanna Vilmusenaho.
For research and education purposes, with Kopiosto’s digital licence, teachers can also scan printed publications, copy texts and images from open websites unless the copyright owner has prohibited such copying and usage, and distribute materials in digital format in the school’s closed network. The licence covers photographs as well, but not slides or transparencies. Teachers may make digital copies to complete teaching materials, and students can use digital copies as part of their assignments.
With text and images in printed publications, teachers can scan:
With text and images of online materials, teachers can:
Digital copies prepared for teaching may be saved so that the digital copies are only accessible to the teaching group for whom they have been prepared. Digital copies prepared for teaching may be distributed via the secure network or via email to the teaching group.
More information, see Kopiosto copying licence’s licence terms.
The Kopiosto copying licence does not apply to materials under independent licence, agreements or other authorisations of use, such as digital learning materials and materials shared under the Creative Commons licences. More information about materials not covered by the Kopiosto permissible digital copying and use, see What materials can I copy? and What is not allowed to be copied with Kopiosto’s licence for higher education institutions?.
Online free content is protected by copyright and may not be automatically copied into educational materials. Instead of copying, you can link, cite or refer to an open online material for teaching purpose.
Creative Commons is a licensing system in which the author defines the rights of his/her work for the users. The author thus allows the users to utilize his/her work more broadly than the copyright laws would otherwise permit. With Creative Commons licenses, images and other materials may be copied and used in educational materials under the terms of the license. More information, see Creative Commons licences.
Other permissions may also permit the use of works. Therefore, always need to check the terms and conditions of the sites you use.
Paid licensed e-materials inducing databases, e-books, online journals and other e-materials may be used for teaching, study and research purposes. Hanken Library has subscribed E-resources via the Finnish National Electronic Library (FinELib), and directly from the publishers and database vendors. Terms and conditions vary by each e-resource. More information, see E-resources and their access rights via FinELib.
Do not copy or save the material. Instead, link the materials for course materials. When linking to licensed e-resources from an online course, it is important to create links that also work remotely outside the university network (proxy links). It is also useful to create persistent links (permalinks), as links copied from the address bar are too long and may easily stop working.
Traditional lecture teaching is usually regarded as performing to the public. Published works except films and plays may be presented and performed within lectures. The audience should be in the same space as the presented work. Please note that this applies only to teaching without separate reimbursement.
Published photographs are allowed to be included in the teaching materials with a valid Kopiosto licence, and based on the proper picture citation and scientific representation.
Presenting music or audio record is allowed. Record can be reproduced from the CD or internet. Presenting music publicly requires permission, for example, from the artist and the producer.
Film works and plays cannot be presented without permission. In videos it is always needed to consider if the work is film work or not. For this subject there are no practical guidelines. Permission for presenting film works can be acquired from Tuotos ry (Finnish film works) and M&M Viihdepalvelu Oy (International film works).
Web pages which do not include moving pictures can be presented in teaching.
Social media is regarded as a published work. It can be presented in teaching. The materials, however, should be legally shared and privacy should always be considered when using the material.
Radio and television programmes can be recorded and played or shown in traditional lecture teaching, but cannot be used as part of web teaching material. More information, see Use of TV and radio programmes in education at Kopiosto’s webpage.
E-Learning materials can contain links to the internet web pages. When linking to licensed e-resources from an online course, it is important to create links that also work remotely outside the university network (proxy links). It is also useful to create persistent links (permalinks), as links copied from the address bar are too long and may easily stop working. More information about how to create proxy links, permanent links to various databases and e-journals, see E-resources in teaching by Tritonia and Links to Articles and E-books by Hanken.
Embedding media as a part of teaching material is only allowed if the service provider gives such an opportunity to embed media.
Radio and television programmes can be recorded and played or shown in traditional lecture teaching, but cannot be used as part of web teaching material. More information, see Kopiosto’s webpage.
It is allowed to distribute only openly licenced and shared materials, for example, via e-mail. Distributing other kinds of works is forbidden without permission. License agreements with database suppliers usually do not permit redistribution. This means that uploading digital copies (i.e. pdf-files of articles) to Moodle is not allowed, even if password protected. Instead you should give the permanent link to the article, preceded by the address to Hanken’s proxy server.
Openly licenced materials can be shared without permission. To share openly licensed materials, you can copy the link, send the link by e-mail or share the link in social media. But it is forbidden to save works in the organisation’s server or embed works as part of E-materials.
It is allowed to share with and give students links to the materials, for example, a YouTube-link, for the students to view the material themselves. This is regarded as private use. Linking must be made so that the viewer understands that the material is in the other platform than the teaching materials.
Teachers' or students' presentations can be saved without permission only in temporary use and in connection with the teaching, for example, studying the presentation for an exam by a student, which is considered as private use.
Recordings can be made, for example, for presentation’s evaluation purpose, but they cannot be stored and should be deleted afterwards. Recordings can be shown only to those who were present during the teaching. Recordings shown via remote access requires permission from the recording’s creator and performer.
Please refer to Copyright: Use of materials by Lappeenranta University of Technology LUT.