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Reference guide (APA 7)

This guide shows how you cite different types of sources. It is based on the APA 7 style (American Psychology Association)

Books, theses & dictionaries

A book citation, namely a monograph, should contain information on the author, title, and publisher. Use italics for the book title. Use the information given on the title page, not the information on the book-cover.

If the book is published as part of a series, also add the name of the series and which number in the series the publication has. Also add the DOI number if there is. If the book you are citing is a 2nd or later edition, add which edition you have used in the reference list. Always italicise the title in the reference list.

Read more about citing sources with more than two authors here.


In-text citation

Template: (Author, year)

Example: (Sikarskie, 2021)

Example: (Bodie & Kane, 2021)


Reference list

Template: Surname, Inital. (Year). Title. Publisher. DOI

Template: Surname, X., & Surname, X. (Year). Title (edition). Publisher. DOI

Example: Bodie, Z. & Kane, A. (2021). Investments.12th edition, international student edition. McGraw-Hill Education.

Example: Sikarskie, A. G. (2021). Storytelling in luxury fashion: Brands, visual cultures, and technologies. Routledge.

E-books are usually identical to the printed version. If you cite an e-book from an e-book database, cite it exactly as if you cite a printed book. If the e-book has a DOI number (Digital object identifier), add that at the end of the reference in the reference list. If an e-book is freely accessible online and does not have a DOI, enter the URL instead.


In-text citation

Template: (Author, year)

Example: According to Wang (2008), ...

Example: (Carroll & Zetterling, 2009)


Reference list

Template: Author, Initial. (Year). Title. Publisher. DOI/URL

Example: Wang, J. (2008). Brand new China: advertising, media and commercial culture. Harvard University Press.

Example: Carroll, J. & Zetterling, C-M. (2009). Guiding students away from plagiarism. KTH Learning Lab.

In-text citation

Template: (author, year)

Example: (Foucault, 2011)


Reference list

Template: Author, Initial. (Year). Title. (Initial. Translator’s surname, Trans. edition). Publisher. (Original work published year).

Example: Foucault, M. (2011). Madness: The invention of an idea. (A. Sheridan, Trans.). Harper Perennial Modern Thought. (Original work published 1954).

An edited book consists of a collection of texts by different authors, which were collected by an editor. The different authors contribute with articles or chapters. Typical edited books are textbooks, conference publications or yearbooks. If you cite the book as a whole, see Editors.

It is more common to only cite a specific article or chapter in an edited book. When citing a specific chapter (article) in an edited book, the author of the chapter is included in the in-text citation and is the main entry in the reference list.

In the reference list, the information on the specific chapter is given first, and thereafter the information on the book as a whole follows. Add an In before the book information. Also add (Ed.) after the name of the editor and the page numbers in which the chapter appears. The title of the book is written in italics.


In-text citation

Template: (Chapter/article author, year)

Example: (Celik, 2019)

Example: (Dorfman, 2003)

Example: According to Leyshon (2003), ...


Reference list

Template: Author, Initial (Year). Chapter title. In Editors Initial Surname (Ed.), Title of edited book.(edition, p. xx-xx). Publisher. DOI

Example: Celik, U. (2019). Survival analysis of a bank marketing campaign. In Ö. Yilmaz (Ed.), New Trends in Management Studies. (p. 179-192). Peter Lang.

Example: Dorfman, P. W. (2003). International and cross-cultural leadership research. In B. J. Punnett & O. Shenkar (Eds.), Handbook for international management. (p. 265-355). University of Michigan Press.

Example: Leyshon, A. (2003). Money and finance. In E. Sheppard. & T.L. Barnes (Eds.), A companion to economic geography. (Blackwell companions to geography 2). (p. 432-449). Blackwell.

A reference to a thesis or dissertation should contain the name of the university and type of thesis, e.g., master’s thesis or dissertation (diss.). If you have used an e-version, add the database/archive name and URL.


In-text citation

Template: (Author, year)

Example: (Vozian, 2022)


Reference list


Author, Initial. (Year). Thesis title. [Type of thesis, Name of university]. Database name/ Archive name. URL

Printed thesis:

Andersson, T. (2008). Leadership and effective management. [Master’s thesis, Hanken School of Economics].

Thesis from database or publication archive:

Vozian, K. (2022). Understanding financial stability: climate-related considerations and financial markets operations. [Doctoral dissertation, Hanken School of Economics]. Dhanken.

Yoa Liu, L. (2020). Do auditors help prevent data breaches? [Doctoral dissertation, University of Chicago Booth School of Business]. ProQuest Dissertations and Theses.

Entry in dictionaries and encyclopedias with an individual author

When citing an encyclopedia article written by an individual author, the main entry is the author followed by the year of publication, article title, and encyclopaedia title. The encyclopaedia title is italicized. When citing an online encyclopaedia, add the URL. If the encyclopedia you cite is one that is regularly being updated, add the date of access and replace the publishing year with n.d. (=no date).


In-text citation

Template: (author, year)

Example:  Defining body language... (Simmering, 2006)...

Example:  Assets can... (Lee & Lee, 2015)


Reference list

Template: Author, Initial (Year). Entry word. In Encyclopaedia title. Publisher. URL

Example: Simmering, M.J. (2006). Body language. In M. M. Helms (Eds.) Encyclopedia of management. 5 ed. Gale.

Example: Lee, A.C. and Lee, C.-F. (Eds.). (2015). Assets Requirements. In Encyclopedia of Finance. Springer.


Entry in encyclopedia or dictionary with a group author

When citing an unsigned article in an encyclopaedia, the publisher is the main entry. When citing an online encyclopaedia, add the year for the latest update, the entry word, URL, and date of access.

In-text citation

Template: (Group author, year)

Example: (Investopedia, n.d.)


Reference list:

Template Publisher (Year). Entry word. In Encyclopedia title. Access date from URL.

Example Investopedia (n.d.). Accounting cycle. In Investopedia. Accessed 10.05.2023 from


Wikipedia entry

Note that Wikipedia is not considered as a reliable source in an academic context.

Wikipedia is continuously updated and therefore the date of the latest update will have to be added in the reference list. The date of the latest update can be found under the button "History" in Wikipedia.


In-text citation

Template: ("Entry word", 2023)

Example: ("Chatbot", 2019)


Reference list

Template:  Entry title (date). In Wikipedia. URL

Example: Chatbot (22.03.2023). In Wikipedia.


A journal article reference includes article author, year, and the article title. Also include the journal title and publication details. The journal title is written in italics. Journal volume, number, and pagination should be noted too.

How to cite articles with 3 or more authors, see different types of authors.


In-text citation

Template: (Author, year)

Example: (Ittonen et al., 2001)


Reference list

Template: Author, Initial (Year). Article title. Journal title, Volume(issue), start and end page.

Example: Ittonen, K., Vähämaa, E. & Vähämaa, S. (2013). Female auditors and accruals quality. Accounting Horizons, 27(2), 205-228. 10.2308/acch-50400

If the article lacks a DOI number and is published online, substitute the DOI with the URL.


In-text citation

Template: (author, year)

Example: (Predelius & Amine, 2022)


Reference list

Template: Author, Initial (Year). Article title. Journal title, Volume(issue), start and end page. URL

Example: Predelus, W. & Amine, S. (2022). The insolvency choice during an economic crisis: the case of Canada. Quantitative Finance and Economics, 6(4), 658-668.

Citing a magazine or newspaper article follows the same rules as for journal articles. If the article is signed, the author is the main entry, followed by year, article title, newspaper title, and publication date. If the article has no author, the main entry is the article title and date of publication. If the article is available on the newspaper or journal web page, add URL. For citing online news sites, see Web pages. If you have read the article via a press archive (e.g. Pressreader or Epress) where the newspaper is equivalent to the printed version, cite the article as if it would be printed.


In-text citation

Template: (Author, year)

Example: (Forbes, 2021)

Example: According to Forbes (2021)...

Example: Due to the Corona pandemic employees… … (Employers are the 2021)


Reference list

Template: Author, Initial (Date). Article title. Newspaper title. DOI/URL

Example: Forbes, S. (20.04.2021). End the lockdowns now. Forbes.

Example: Employers are the new Covid cops (31 May 2021) Bloomberg Businessweek.

Sound & images

If you use figures or tables originating from another publication, always cite the source. Note that visual works such as images are cited as figures.

The in-text reference should include author, year, and page number. Place the citation both in the text and under the figure/table. In the reference list, cite the image according to what type of source the image/figure or table is taken from (e.g. book, article or website).

Illustrations are protected by copyright law and might require permission from the copyright holder. Images that can be freely downloaded, altered and be used in any context without citing the author can be found at, e.g., Pixabay and Unsplash. Using clip art from Microsoft Word or PowerPoint does not require a citation.

More information:


In-text citation

Template: (Author/Organisation/username, year)

Example: (Batat, 2019)

Example: Batat shows that... (2019)


Information given directly below image/figure/table

Template: From/Adapted from Initial. Author/Username. (year). Title [Type of media/Description]. Source. URL. License

Example: Adapted from Cash and voucher assistance in humanitarian contexts. (2023). R. Harping.  [Figure]. CC BY SA 3


Exampel of citing image from webpage


Reference list

In the reference list, you cite according to type of source used (book, article, web page etc.). The citation is written without the license and preposition.

Example HelpinghandVK. (2016). Introduction to business studies. Vikiversity [webpage].

How to cite an interview depends on whether you cite an interview made by someone else or an interview you have done yourself, which hasn't been published.

If your research material consists of interviews, the sources can be anonymized, but should still be cited in such a way that the reader can distinguish them from one another. Note that interviews that are part of your empirical material are not oral sources. They can be presented, e.g., in an appendix.

See also personal communication.

In YouTube or Vimeo references, the author is the name of the account to which the video was uploaded. Mention the person talking in the video in the text, if it is important for the reader to know.


In-text citation

Example Academic writing according to Tim Urban is...(TED, 2016).


Reference list

Example Name of the YouTube-account. (upload date). Title [Video]. Name of website. URL

Example TED. (2016, April 4). Inside the mind of a master procrastinator [Video]. YouTube.


The director is seen as the author of a film. If the director is unknown, use a person in a similar role as the author. Also add the type of material in brackets (film, DVD etc.). 


In-text citation

Example: In the film The wolf of Wall Street (Scorsese, 2013) the main character …


Reference list

Template: Surname, Initial. (Director). (Year). Title [Film/DVD/TV show]. Production Company. URL

Example: Scorsese, M. (Director). (2013). The wolf of Wall Street [Film]. Red Granite Pictures.



The executive producer/s are seen as the authors of a TV-series.


In-text citation

Example The TV-series Follow the money is about ... (Bernth, 2016-2019). 


Reference list

Template Surname, Initial. (Executive producer). Title of the series (years when series was aired). [TV-series]. Production company.

Example  Bernth, P. (Producent). Follow the money (2016-2019). [TV-serie]. Danmarks radio; Norsk Rikskringkasting; Sveriges Television.


Episode of a TV-show

When referring to a specific episode of a TV-series, use the author and the director as author.


In text-citation

Template (Surname, date)

Example (Novak & Kwapis, 2005)


Reference list

Template Surname, Initial (Writer) & Surname, Initial (Director). (Date). Title of the episode (Season number, Episode number) [TV-series episode]. I Efternamn, Initial. (Exekutiv producent), Namn på TV-serien. Produktionsbolag.

Exempel Novak, B. J. (Writer) & Kwapis, K. (Director). (2005, October 11). The fire (Season 2, episode 4) [TV-series episode]. In Daniels, G. (Executive producer), The Office. NBC; Reveille Productions; Deedle-Dee Productions.




In-text citation

Template: (Author, year)

Example: (Haga & Sundvik, 2020-present)

Example: The after-class talks with Jesper and Dennis (2020-present)...


Reference list

Example: Haga, J. & Sundvik, D. (2020-present). After-class med  Jesper och Dennis [Audio podcast]. Hanken podcast.


Podcast episode

In-text citation

Template: (Author, year)

Example: (Zhuravleva, 2022)

Example: Zhuravleva explains that... (2022)...


Reference list

Template: Surname, Initial. (Host). (Date). Title (Episode no.) [Audio podcast episode]. In title. Production Company. URL

Example: Zhuravleva, A. (Host).(October 24, 2022). Algorithmic bias - the dark side of social media (Episode no. 34). In Sustainability unwrapped. Hanken School of Economics.

It's not necessary to note whether you have listened to an audio book or read a printed book. The references look the same. However, if you quote an audio book, you need to provide a time stamp for the beginning of the quote.

Online sources & generative AI

When citing online material, make sure you know what type of source you are citing. Is it a web page, a PDF-publication or a blog? If the web page can be compared to a printed publication (e.g., book, article, theses, annual report), the citation should be written according to the type of the source.

A reference to a web page should include the same information as to a printed document. The author can be a person or an organization. If an author cannot be found, the web page title is given in the same manner as with articles and books with no author. The web page title is italicized. The year given is either the year given as the web pages date of publication or the latest update. If no year can be found, add n.d. (= no date). Add URL. Date of access is given only when citing a source that is designed to be updated frequently.


In-text citation

Template: (Organisation/Web page title, year)

Example: Plagiarism can be… (Linnaeus University, 2015)

Example: (Baltic Yachts, n.d.)


Reference list

Template: Author/organization. (year). Web page title. URL.

Example: Linnaeus University. (2015). Refero: an anti-plagiarism tutorial.

Example: Baltic yachts. (n.d.). Sailing sustainably through the 21st century.

Example: Race, M. (04 April, 2023). Virgin orbit: Richard Branson's rocket firm files for bankruptcy. BBC News.

Citing social media posts follows the same principles as when citing other web documents.

If the post has an author, the author is the main entry. An organization or a company is the author if a person is missing. If there is no author, the posts title is the main entry. Add the type of media in square brackets to clarify.

Certain types of information in social media can be categorized as personal communication, e.g., posts in closed Facebook-groups. In this case, you need the person's permission to cite this information.

If social media is the subject of your study, these sources can be listed in a separate list presenting your research data. In that list, the information  enabling the reader to access the source (such as title, URL, and date of access) should be included.


In-text citation

Template: (Author, year)

Example: Idun’s Apple’s business model … (Idun’s Apple, 2010).

Example: According to Godin … (2021).


Reference list

Template: Author, Initial. (Date). Title [Status update]. Site name. URL

Template: Name of group (Date). Post title. [type of media]. Site name. URL.

Example: Idun’s Apple (19.3.2010). Idun’s Apple now delivers to all of EU. [Status update]. Facebook.!/pages/Iduns-Apple/197497928293?ref=ts

Example: Flying solo Micro business community (12.05.2021). Why does every website look the same? [Discussion forum]

A blog post can be compared to a signed newspaper article, where the blogger's name is the author, the blog post's headline is the title, and the name of the blog compares to the newspapers name in italics.


In-text citation

Template: (blogger, date)

Example: (Godin, 10.05.2021)


Reference list

Template: Surname, Initial (Date). Title [Blog post]. Blog name. URL

Example: Godin, S. (10.05.2021). Why the blockchain matters. [blog]. Seth's blog.


In-text citation

Template: (Author, Date)

Example: (Economist impact, 24.04.2023)

Example: (Gates, 30.04.2023)


Reference list

Template: Author, Initial/Organisation [@username]. (Date). Title [Tweet]. Site name. URL

Example: Economist impact [@economistimpact]. (24.04.2023). #Ad Learn how #ChromeOS and Google Cloud are using cloud technologies to help companies achieve their net-zero goals  [Tweet]. Twitter.

Example: Gates, Bill [@Billgates]. (30.04.2023). As we rely more and more on electricity, it's vital to find innovative ways to generate clean power. [Tweet]. Twitter.


Twitter profile

Add your retrieval date and state the year to be unknown (n.d.). This is because the content can change over time.

In-text citation

Template: (author, n.d.)

Example: (Economist impact, n.d.)

Example: (Gates, n.d.)


Reference list

Template: Author, Initial/Organisation. [@username]. (n.d.).Tweets [Twitter profile]. Twitter. Retrieved day.month.year, from URL

Example: Economist Impact. [@economistimpact]. (n.d.). Tweets [Twitter profile]. Twitter. Retrieved 03.05.2023, from

Example: Gates, B. [@Billgates]. (n.d.). Tweets [Twitter profile]. Twitter. Retrieved 03.05.2023, from

If the link to an online document is too long, you can use a URL or DOI shortener. Always check if the shortened URL or DOI takes you to the correct place before you use them in the reference list. There are several online services for shortened URL:s. For a shortened DOI, use

As a rule of thumb, a text generated by an AI tool is not considered a source. This type of text is neither reliable or possible to recreate. According to APA recommendations you cite the text as a product of an algoritm. Thus you cite the AI tool and it’s developer.

Hanken has instructions for how to use AI-tools in your studies. Always describe in your text in what way you have used it. Information on how to cite generative AI images is found here.


More readings:


In-text citation

Template (Developer/publisher, Year)

Example (OpenAI, 2023)

Exempel  By using OpenAI (2023)…


List of references

Template Developer. (Year). Title of AI-model (Version) [Type of model]. URL

Example OpenAI. (2023). ChatGPT (Version GPT-3-5) [Large language model]. 

Conference publications & reports

Conference publications are papers or posters presented at a conference, symposium, meeting or a congress and then published in the conference proceedings. Conference proceedings often contain presentations of new research results.


In-text citation

Template: (Author, year)

Example: According to a study... (Gunawan & Sari, 2021), the corona pandemic has...


Reference list:

Template: Surname, Initial. (Year). Title of conference presentation. In X. Editor's surname (ED.), Title of the conference proceedings (p. xx-xx). Publisher. DOI/URL

Example: Gunawan, G.H. & Sari, W. P. (2021). Marketing Communications During the 2020 Pandemic: Case Study of The Star Fit Grand Paragon. In Proceedings of the International Conference on Economics, Business, Social, and Humanities (ICEBSH 2021) (p. 685 - 690).

A report from an agency, institution or organisation (e.g., a business firm) usually has a group author, and this should be taken into account when citing. The author of an annual report is most of the time the company. If the report is part of a series, add information about the series name and number.


In-text citation

Template: (Organisation, year)

Example: H&M Group (2020) has developed....

Example: Since 2013 the KWH Group has strengthened... (KWH Group, 2023)

Example: Finland's GDP is projected... (Ministry of Finance, 2022)...


Reference list

Template: Organisation. (Year).Title. (Titlke of seriers Serial number) Publisher. URL

Example: Ministry of Finance (2022). Economic survey, winter 2022: Economic prospects. Publications of the Ministry of Finance 2022:81. 

Example: H&M Group (2020). Sustainability performance report 2020. H&M Group.

Example: KWH Group (2013). KWH annual review 2013. KWH Group.


Special cases

The APA system does not have any specific rules for citing legislation. Use the recommendations for the country's legislation that you are citing.

Use the law’s official name in the language you are writing in, and its number in the constitutional collection. In the in-text citation, the law title is written with lower case. When citing a law for the first time, use the complete official name. For the following times, use the standardized abbreviations if one exists.  If the law or convention has a long name, shorten it for the in-text citation, e.g., by using the 3-5 first words of the title. If you are citing a specific paragraph in the law, add the paragraph number.

Not that not all Finnish laws have official names and have abbreviations in English. A list of official abbreviations in Swedish and Finnish can be found in the Edilex database.


In-text citation

Template: (Law title, number/Year)

Example: marks will be... (Trade marks act 544/2019)

Example: … according to the trade marks act (544/2019 § 2)

Example: The convention between Finland and United Kingdom on double taxation (SopS 1-2/1970)...


Reference list

Template: Law title (number/year). URL

Example: Trade marks act (544/2019).

Example: Convention between the government of the republic of Finland and the government of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland for the avoidance of double taxation and the prevention of fiscal evasion with respect to taxes on income and capital (SopS 1-2/1970). A

Example: Act on Transfers of Real Estate Requiring Special Permission (470/2019)

Software and apps mentioned in the text, but not quoted or paraphrased does not need a formal citation. However, if you have cited or paraphrased from software or apps, include in-text citations and an entry in the reference list.


Reference list

Template: Developer (Year). Name of software (Version) [Computer software]. Company. URL

Example: Showpad (2014). Showpad (Version 3.4.5) [Mobile application].

Example: Kony (2014). Kony Mobile HR [Mobile application].


In-text citation

Template: (Developer/Company, year)

Example: The mobile application Kony HR increased the company’s… (Kony 2014).

The information needed when citing a standard is the author (standardization authority), title of the standard, and publication year. Add the edition if the 2nd or later edition is used. If you have used an online standard, add the standardization authority's URL.


In-text citation

Template: (Author, year)

Example: (Finnish Standards Association, 2015).

Example: (British Standards, 2008)


Reference list

Template: Author. (Year). Standard title (standard number). Publisher. Publisher URL

Example: Finnish Standards Association SFS (2015). Quality management systems: requirements (SFS-EN ISO 9001). Finnish Standards Association.

Example: British Standards Institution (2008). 2008 Quality management systems: requirements (BS EN ISO 9001). British Standards Institution.

If a source can't be retrieved by the reader, it is cited as personal communication. Personal communication (oral sources)  includes e-mails, text messages, online chats, interviews, telephone conversations, live speeches, unrecorded classroom lectures, letters, and so on. If you are citing an oral source, make sure you have the permission from the person in question to cite the source.

Oral sources should not be included in the reference list, since personal communication can’t be accessed by the reader.


In-text citation

Template: (Initial, name, personal communication, date)

Example: (D. Anderson, personal communication, 21 March 2023)

Example: According to David Anderson (personal communication, 21 March 2023)


Reference list

Personal communication should not be included in the reference list.

If your source has not yet been formally published, e.g., if it is found in an pre-print archive or repository, the date given in the citations should be the year when the source was completed or when the draft was written. Add the name of the archive or database to the entry in the reference list. Articles in press are documents that have been accepted for publication but not yet assigned to a publication volume and/or issue. Preprint is a version of an academic text that precedes the peer-review process.


In-text citation

Template: (Author, in press)

Template: (author, year)

Example: (Rosário & Carmo Dias, 2022)


Reference list

Template: Author, Initial. (in press). Title. Publisher.

Template: Author, Initial. (year). Title. Archive/repostory. DOI

Example: Rosário, A. T. & Carmo Dias, J. (2022). Fuzzy logic: an application into marketing strategy.

How to cite documents on an inaccessible or closed website, such as in an organization's Intranet or a course learning environment, depends on whether your audience can access it or not. 

Material in learning platforms accessible for the reader

Presentations and other material from recorded lectures published in learning platforms such as Moodle are considered as unpublished material. In the citation, the information about the type of document (e.g., Power point-presentation or Word-document) is placed after the title. If the material in the learning platform consists of articles or parts of books, cite the source according to the rules of that type of material. When citing a lecture you have attended, treat it as personal communication.

In-text citation

Template: (Author, year)

Example: (Holmlund, 2022)

Example: Holmlund shows that ... (2022)


Reference list

Template: Author, Initial. (Date). Title [Type of source]. Name of learning environment/company intranet. URL login page

Example:  Holmlund, S. (16.9.2022). How to use your references. [PowerPoint slides]Moodle. https://


Material in learning platforms not accessible for the reader

If the reader does not have access to the source, use the recommendations for personal communication.

If you are quoting a source, or for other reasons (e.g., to help the reader) want to have a more specific in-text citation, add the page number(s) for textual sources and time stamps for audiovisual sources. Add quotation marks before and after the quote.


In-text citation

Example: (Anderson, 2022, p. 54)

Example: According to Anderson (2022, p. 54) "a business plan is...".


Quoting text with no pagination

Some digital material lacks pagination. The reason can be that the material isn't published in PDF format or that the pagination you see is generated by the devise you are using to read the text, or the size of your screen. In these cases, there are other methods of citing a specific position in the text.

You can use chapter titles or paragraph numbers instead. Replace the page number(s) in your in-text citation with he chapter or sub chapter title in your in-text citation. If the chapter title is too long, add only the beginning of the title to make your text more readable. You can also replace the page number(s) with the number of the paragraph you are citing to specify where the information you are citing emanates. Count the paragraphs manually if they are not numbered. You can also combine both chapter title and paragraph number in your in-text citation, especially if the chapter is long or if this enables the reader to find your source more easily.

In-text citation

Example:  (Kara, 2018, Choosing a research question).

Example: (Huovinen, 2020, para.7)

Example: (Kara, 2018, Choosing a research question, para. 3)


Quoting audiovisual material

When directly quoting audiovisual works, add a time stamp for the beginning of the quote.

Template: (author, year, minute:second)

Example: (Entrepreneur, 2017, 1:46)

Material with no date or year of publication

Substitute the year with n.d. in both your in-text citation and in the reference list.


Material without page numbers

Some digital material lacks page numbers. This can be the case when the material is published in another format than PDF. In some cases, the pagination you see can be generated by the devise you are using, or by the screen size. Don’t use this kind of page numbers in your in-text reference. In these cases, use the chapter title or the number of the paragraph you are citing in your in-text reference.


Material with no author

See No author.


Other missing information

Many online newspapers, blogs, etc., articles are published without a volume and issue. In these cases, omit these elements from the citation.

In-text citation

Template: (author, year)

Example: (Foucault, 2011)


Reference list

Template: Author, Initial. (Year). Title. (Initial. Translator’s surname, Trans. edition). Publisher. (Original work published year).

Example: Foucault, M. (2011). Madness: The invention of an idea. (A. Sheridan, Trans.). Harper Perennial Modern Thought. (Original work published 1954).