APA 7 referencing style will be introduced to new students at Hanken during the academic year 2023-2024. The library will continue to offer support in the Harvard style for those who wish to continue using it.
This reference guide is intended for writing theses and other written assignments at Hanken. The guide is based on the 7th edition of the American Psychological Association writing guide (hereafter called APA 7). If you prefer to use the Harvard system, see Hanken reference guide (Harvard).
We have collected examples of how to cite different types of sources. If you are citing a type of source not found in this guide, try to apply the citation rules of a closely related type of source. You can also find help in these guides on which this guide is based. Regarding questions related to language and style, check with the guides that cover linguistic aspects of academic writing. For technical presentation and layout of written assignments, see Hanken Formatting guide for academic texts.
Note that some of the examples in this guide are fictional.
If you use the Oxford system (with footnotes) for referencing, see the University of Oxford's OSCOLA-guides.
If you wish to use a reference management tool, learn more about it in the guide for Reference management software.