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Key citation databases

Key databases for citation tracking include Web of ScienceScopus, and Google Scholar.

Hanken subscribes to Web of Science (WoS) and Scopus (available through Hanna). Google scholar (GS) is freely accessible, but when out of Hanken's network, you need to activate the library’s link in order to reach the full text versions of articles in licensed databases:

In a citation database, you get information not only about who has cited an article, but also about how many times an author has been cited. You can also list all articles citing the same source.

While all sources of citation data are continually trying to extend their coverage, a single database cannot index all the world's scholarly publications. And coverage in different disciplines is different. For example, the coverage of the arts and humanities may be less comprehensive, especially for books.

Generally, Web of Science and Scopus offer good coverage of sciences and social sciences, with less emphasis on humanities. Google Scholar covers all disciplines equally well, and captures "grey literature" such as policy papers and technical reports in addition to journals, but the criteria for inclusion in Google Scholar are not wholly transparent.

Comparison of WoS, Scopus, and GS

The table below represents a comparison of WoS, Scopus, and GS (originally by the University of Oulu, adapted):

Web of Science 
Google Scholar

Multidisciplinary abstract and citation database.


  • Science Citation Index - SCI,
  • Social Sciences Citation Index - SSCI, and
  • Arts and Humanities Citation Index - AHCI
Multidisciplinary abstract and citation database A web search engine for scientific information
Owned by Clarivate Analytics, formerly Thomson Reuters Elsevier Google


Subscription based

Subscription based

Freely accessible

Number of journals

22 000 peer-reviewed journals.

Aims to include the best journals of all fields.

23 500 peer-reviewed journals.

Indexes more journals than Web of Science.

Better coverage for Economics and IT.

Information is not publicly available.

In theory, Google Scholar is able to index all sciences in all fields on the Internet.

Journal article coverage is not as good as WoS and Scopus in their core fields.

Other contents

Conference proceedings, books

Conference proceedings, professional magazines, patents, and book series

Books, pre-prints, theses and dissertations, and web pages.

Better overall coverage in fields where conference publications are important. 

Main disciplines

Natural Sciences, Technology, Social Sciences, Fine Arts and Humanities

Physics, Technology, Health Sciences, Bio sciences, Fine Arts and Humanities,
Social Sciences

Information is not publicly available.

Time span

From 1900 (Science), 1956 (Social Sciences) and 1975 (Arts and Humanities), accessible

Records back to 1788


Information is not publicly available.

Disadvantage for materials published prior to 1990.




Information not publicly available, but more or less monthly.

Collection policy



Information not publicly available, contracts with most significant publishing houses

Citation analysis

Citation Report tool. 

The Citation Report is easy to generate, but only counts references to articles that are also in the database.

View citation overview tool. 

Only indexes citations starting from 1996, and only counts references to publications that are also in the database.

Search report with a "Cited by" link, giving  all publications which cite the publication in question.

Time span of citation information

From 1900  (Science), from 1956 (Social Sciences) and from 1975 (Arts and Humanities). 

Hanken has access to citations starting from 1986.

Cited references dating back to 1970.

Information is not publicly available.


 Journal Citation Reports (JCR):
    - H-index
    - Impact Factor (IF)
    - Article Influence (AI)
    - Eigenfactor
    - Immediacy Index

- H-index
- Source normalized impact per paper (SNIP)
- Raw impact per publication (RIP)
- SCImago Journal Rank (SJR)
- Field-Weighted Citation Impact (FWCI)

- H-index
Researcher profile - ResearcherID - Scopus Author Identifier
Scopus Affiliation Identifier
- Google Scholar Profile
Training Web of Science training portal

Scopus content at a glance
Scopus Tutorials

Google Scholar content coverage and search tips