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Open science

Hanken's guidelines on open access to scholarly publications

Hanken adheres to good scientific practices and code of conduct for research integrity specified in the Finnish National Board on Research Integrity (TENK) for handling suspected deviations and avoiding any misconduct including fabrication, falsification, cheating, plagiarism, and misuse.

Hanken promotes open access publishing, attending to the quality and societal impact of research, and offers training, instructions, and support for open access publishing and self-archiving, as well as for the responsible conduct of research.

The infrastructure for open access publishing at Hanken has been outsourced and is based on generally accepted solutions. Hanken’s institutional repository DHanken uses permanent links (handles) and OAI-PMH to disseminate metadata. The institutional repository is integrated with the research database Haris, which is used for the registration and administration of research qualifications. The openness of Hanken’s publications is managed and overseen systematically and relevant information is reported to the Finnish National Research Information Hub and Juuli portal.

Hanken urges researchers to evaluate the integrity and reputation of the publication channel to which they submit manuscripts and refrain from submitting to predatory or pseudo journals.

Hanken also urges researchers to investigate the conditions of the publishing agreements and publishers’ copyright guidelines, author sharing and reusing permissions, as well as research data policies. Hanken does not recommend publishing in a publication channel in which the publisher refuses to give authors reuse and self-archiving permission despite negotiations.[1]

Researchers consider open access options and outlets from the beginning of the research, and prioritize a gold open access journal, a hybrid open access journal with discounts on article processing charges (APCs) or a journal that allows for non-embargoed self-archiving.

A legitimate copy of all the new peer-reviewed articles is uploaded to the research database Haris. The copy is preferably a version of record (VoR) or a post-print version. Comprehensive self-archiving of the publications in Haris ensures that the school’s research outputs and activities are documented, permanently preserved and available for further use.

Hybrid publishing is an alternative when it expedites the transition to fully open publishing as part of a transformative agreement which changes the contract between a subscriber (e.g., a university library) and a publisher from a subscription model to an open access one. As a member of the FinELib consortium, Hanken aims to secure open access agreements or discounts on article processing charges (APCs) with publishers. Most of the FinElib’s agreements with publishers are Plan S compliant transformative agreements. Hanken’s Library updates the information on Discounts on APCs in the LibGuide on Open access.

Since 2020, Hanken has allocated a central fund for open access publishing for researchers and defined criteria for fund granting when a researcher’s target journal is not included in the journal lists covered by the FinElib agreements with the publishers. Financial support for book processing charges (BPCs) is also provided for publishing peer-reviewed monographs open access. See Hanken’s central fund for open access publishing fees in the LibGuide on Open access.

Hanken monitors the development of open access publishing and of total publishing fees including APCs, BPCs, submission fees and production-related fees such as colour image or figure charges. Researchers register publishing payment information in Haris and assign it to the account code 4435 Open access-fees in Rondo. The Library needs the information on publishing fees compiled in Haris to report cost data to the Ministry of Education and Culture.

Researchers opt for green open access publishing and note if there is an embargo period that hinders immediate open access to the self-archived copy uploaded in Haris. In the Ministry’s new funding model for universities for the contract period 2021-2024, only publications immediately available via open access without any embargo period are included. The Finnish national strategy for open science in the Declaration for Open Science and Research 2020-2025 and its Policy for Open Access to Scholarly Publications state that no later than 2022, all new scientific articles and conference publications be immediately openly accessible without any embargo period.

Doctoral theses are preserved in Hanken’s digital repository DHanken. Doctoral candidates follow the procedures and guidelines on the publishing of theses and dissertations.

When researchers choose licence terms, it is recommended to make sure that the further use of scholarly publications is not unnecessarily limited, and that the terms of use shall be clearly indicated. Hanken recommends the standard, machine-readable CC BY licence which is one of six Creative Commons licences. The licence recommendation also applies to theses.

ORCID (Open Researcher & Contributor Identifier) is primarily used for identification of researchers. It is recommended that all Hanken researchers acquire an ORCID identifier, connect it to their profile in Haris (see Create and connect your ORCID ID in Haris in the LibGuide on Haris) and use it in their scholarly publications and datasets.

Hanken affiliation is officially stated in the publication from the research conducted at Hanken. Researchers coming to or leaving Hanken ensure that their publications are recorded for the school where the research work has taken place.


[1] Researchers can check publishers’ copyright policies and approaches to self-archiving in SHERPA/Romeo database. If it is not allowed to publish a self-archived copy in Hanken’s institutional repository according to a publisher’s copyright policies, researchers propose an amendment. The Library and legal advisers can give advice.

Open access options and oppotunities at Hanken

open access logo   Picture: Open access logo.

Open access (OA) means that research publications are made freely accessible on the internet in digital form, which promotes the dissemination of research results both within the scientific community and to the public at large. Readers can read, use, copy, print, and link to the OA publications, all free of charge. There are three main types of open access publishing:

  • Gold open access: An article is published and made freely accessible in a digital form on the publisher’s website immediately upon publication, in a journal that does not receive subscription fees from the readers, which means that all articles in the journal are freely available immediately upon publication. Often a publishing fee (article processing charge, APC) is charged to cover the administrative costs of the journal. Gold open access publishing may also be free of charge.
  • Hybrid open access: The article is published and made openly available immediately upon publication after the payment of an article processing charge (APC), in a subscription-based journal where some articles are published freely available and other contents are available after the payment of a subscription fee.
  • Green open access (also called self-archiving or parallel publishing): A version of the article is self-archived in a repository, usually an institutional repository or a subject-based repository, before, after or alongside the publication of the article. Green open access publishing is free of charge, but access to this article is often delayed by an embargo period.

When self-archiving, it is important to check the publisher’s policy for open access, which version may be archived, and if there is an embargo for self-archiving. The self-archived versions may be:

  • pre-print: submitted manuscript, author’s non peer-reviewed draft.
  • post-print: author's accepted manuscript (AAM), final draft, post-review, the refereed manuscript, the author’s final version of the peer-reviewed article accepted for publication but not yet laid out for publication by the publisher.
  • Proof: often partly with the layout of the journal.
  • Version of Record (VoR): the publisher’s final PDF, the final published version with the layout of the journal.

Hanken researchers are entitled to different open access opportunities, for example:

Researchers select the publication channels which they find the most suitable in terms of quality and effectiveness:

  • The openness of the publication (gold, hybrid and green open access without embargoes) is a significant factor in selecting a publication channel.
  • The authors of the publication are encouraged to withhold the rights to the publication in order to be able to use it in the future. It is not recommended to publish in a publication channel in which the publisher refuses to give authors reuse and self-archiving permission.
  • Further use of the publications is not unnecessarily limited and the terms of use shall be clearly indicated. It is recommended to use the  CC BY 4.0 licence which is one of six Creative Commons licences.

Information on OA is available in Hanken's LibGuide on Open access.

Additional resources

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  • Publication Forum: The national Publication Forum (in Finnish Julkaisufoorumi, Jufo) divides academic publication channels (journals, series, conference publications, book publishers) into three levels (1 = basic; 2 = leading; 3 = top). The evaluation is performed by 23 discipline-specific expert panels composed of about 200 distinguished Finnish or Finland-based scholars.

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