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Open access (Eng)

Forms of open access

What is Open Access (OA)?

Open access means that research results are made freely accessible on the internet in digital form, which promotes the dissemination of research results both within the scientific community and to the public at large. The reader can read free of charge, use, copy, print, and link to the OA publications.  

Gold, green or hybrid?

There are three main types of open access publishing:

  • Gold open access
    The article is published in a journal that does not receive subscription fees from the readers. Instead, it's the writer who pays a publishing fee (article processing charge, APC) to cover the administrative costs of the journal.
  • Green open access
    Also called self-archiving. A version of the article is self-archived in a repository, usually an institutional repository or a subject-based repository. The self-archived version is usually a post-print version, i.e., the refereed manuscript (Author Accepted Manuscript, AAM) of the article. When self-archiving it is important to check the publisher's policy for open access, which version may be archived and possible embargos for self-archiving.
    Dhanken is Hanken's institutional repository. Subject-based repositories are, for example, SSRN, RePEC and ArXiv.
  • Hybrid open access
    The author has the option to pay for making individual articles in subscription-based journals freely accessible. The article is made openly available immediately upon publication.

Picture: Foster Open Science (PASTEUR4OA)


APC (Article Processing Charge) A publication fee payed for by the author to an open access journal or a hybrid journal to make an article openly available. All open access journals do not require an APC, but hybrid journals always require an APC.

Creative Commons (CC)-license Extends the terms and conditions of copyright of a work to fit specific needs.

Digital Object Identifier (DOI) A persistent identifier of an electronic document, for example of a journal article. 

Embargo The publisher's restrictions on how soon an article may be published in an open archive.

Gold open access The article is published in an OA-journal that (usually) takes a publication fee of the author (see APC).

Green open access A version of the article (approved of by the publisher) is made freely available, usually in an institutional repository or a subject repository. Also called self archiving.

Hybrid open access A subscription based journal that has an option of making articles openly available, if the author pays a fee. The article in it's final version (Publisher's pdf) is then made freely available immediately on publication.

Libre open access The publication is openly available, but there may be some copyright restrictions using a Creative Commons license. 

Open access (OA) Scientific research results are made freely accessible in digital form.

Open access journal A journal that is published openly available. No subscription fee is required by the reader. An article processing charge (APC) is often required by the author to cover the administrative costs of the journal.

Self-archiving A version of the article (approved of by the publisher) is made freely available, usually by depositing in an institutional repository or a subject repository. Also called green open access.

Post-print (Final draft = Author-Accepted Manuscript, AAM) Refers to the post-peer-review and accepted version of the article, before the publisher has created the final layout for the work (typesetting, logos etc.). This is generally the version that the publishers allow to be self-archived in a repository.

Pre-print Refers to the author's draft, the manuscript submitted to the publisher, i.e. it has not undergone a peer review process.

Publisher's PDF The final version of the article, with typesetting, layout, logos, etc. as in the publication. It is the final version laid out by the publisher. As a rule self-archiving is not allowed.

Sherpa/Romeo Database where you can check scientific journals' and publishers' copyright policies and approach to self-archiving.

Video clips on open access

Find OA publications


Sherpa Juliet enables researchers and librarians to see funders' conditions for open access publication.